scientist

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( (listen); 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian Tamil politician and aerospace scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President", he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Aage Bohr

Aage Niels Bohr (Danish: [ˈɔːwə ˌnels ˈboɐ̯ˀ] (listen); 19 June 1922 – 8 September 2009) was a Danish nuclear physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 with Ben Mottelson and James Rainwater "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection". Starting from Rainwater's concept of an irregular-shaped liquid drop model of the nucleus, Bohr and Mottelson developed a detailed theory that was in close agreement with experiments. Since his father, Niels Bohr, had won the prize in 1922, he and his father were one of the six pairs of fathers and sons who have both won the Nobel Prize and one of the four pairs who have both won the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Aaron Swartz

Aaron Hillel Swartz (November 8, 1986 – January 11, 2013) was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist. He was involved in the development of the web feed format RSS and the Markdown publishing format, the organization Creative Commons, and the website framework web.py, and was a co-founder of the social news site Reddit. He was given the title of co-founder by Y Combinator owner Paul Graham after the formation of Not a Bug, Inc. (a merger of Swartz's project Infogami and a company run by Alexis Ohanian and Steve Huffman).

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Abdul Qadeer Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan, also respectfully known in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan, FPAS, DEng, ScD, HI, NI ; more widely known as Dr. A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a metallurgical engineer, colloquially regarded as the founder of HEU based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment programme for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk was a Pakistani theoretical physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel prize for this discovery. Salam holds the distinction of being the first Pakistani and the first Muslim to receive a Nobel prize in Physics.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Abraham Pais

Abraham Pais was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. Pais earned his Ph.D. from University of Utrecht just prior to a Nazi ban on Jewish participation in Dutch universities during World War II. When the Nazis began the forced relocation of Dutch Jews, he went into hiding, but was later arrested and saved only by the end of the war.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Ada Lovelace

Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognise that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and published the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is sometimes regarded as the first to recognise the full potential of a "computing machine" and the first computer programmer.Lovelace was the only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron and his wife Anne Isabella "Annabella" Milbanke, Lady Wentworth. All of Byron's other children were born out of wedlock to other women. Byron separated from his wife a month after Ada was born and left England forever four months later. He commemorated the parting in a poem that begins, "Is thy face like thy mother's my fair child! ADA! sole daughter of my house and heart?". He died of disease in the Greek War of Independence when Ada was eight years old. Her mother remained bitter and promoted Ada's interest in mathematics and logic in an effort to prevent her from developing her father's perceived insanity. Despite this, Ada remained interested in Byron and was, upon her eventual death, buried next to him at her request. She was often ill in her childhood. Ada married William King in 1835. King was made Earl of Lovelace in 1838, Ada thereby becoming Countess of Lovelace.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Adam Sedgwick

Adam Sedgwick was one of the founders of modern geology. He proposed the Devonian period of the geological timescale. Later, he proposed the Cambrian period, based on work which he did on Welsh rock strata.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Aditi Shankardass

Aditi Shankardass (Hindi: अदिती शंकरदास) is a British neuroscientist. She has been listed as one of the "8 Scientists Who Are Changing The World" alongside Stephen Hawking and Sir Tim Berners Lee.Her pioneering clinical work using electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of the brain to help diagnose developmental disorders in children has been covered by the press worldwide, including CNN, ABC News, Times of India, and Financial Express, and was the subject of her widely acclaimed TED talk in 2009 at the TED conference.The work of her team at Harvard Medical School on the creation of a specific neurological biomarkers for autism has been featured in the Time Magazine special edition "TIME 100 New Scientific Discoveries". Her previous work using EEG recordings of the brain to help identify the underlying neurological cause of dyslexia was the subject of her presentation at the United Kingdom Parliament in 2001 at the Annual Reception for Britain's Top Young Scientists, Engineers and Technologists.Shankardass serves as a board member of the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation, an organisation devoted to raising global awareness of neurological and psychiatric disorders. She has been a consultant for the BBC Science Line in the UK, providing expertise for radio and TV documentaries.Shankardass is a classically trained singer, with concert performances in India, UK and the US, and live recordings with Amjad Ali Khan, Anup Jalota and on BBC Radio. She has been a TV presenter on Zee TV in the UK and appeared in several documentaries. She has acted on stage and TV in India, as well as in the US feature film, Trafficked. She has been noted for her attractiveness.Her father is celebrity lawyer Vijay Shankardass, whose clients include His Royal Highness Nizam of Hyderabad, author Salman Rushdie, actor Michael Douglas, Amnesty International, Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces, Penguin Books and Virgin Group. Her mother is social historian and Penal Reform International chairperson Rani Dhavan Shankardass. She is the granddaughter of His Excellency Shanti Swaroop Dhavan, Governor of West Bengal and Indian High Commissioner (Ambassador) to the United Kingdom. She is the great-granddaughter of Rai Bahadur (Most Honorable Prince) Bali Ram Dhavan of the North West Frontier Province, formerly of India.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Ahmet Davutoglu

Ahmet Davutoğlu (Turkish pronunciation: [ahˈmet davuˈtoːɫu] (listen); born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016. He previously served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2009 to 2014 and as chief advisor to Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan from 2003 to 2009. He was elected as an AKP Member of Parliament for Konya in the 2011 general election and was re-elected as an MP in both the June and November 2015 general elections. He resigned as Prime Minister on 22 May 2016.Following the election of serving Prime Minister and AKP leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan as the 12th President of Turkey, Davutoğlu was announced by the AKP Central Executive Committee as a candidate for the party leadership. He was unanimously elected as leader during the first AKP extraordinary congress and consequently succeeded Erdoğan as prime minister, forming the 62nd Government of the Turkish Republic. His cabinet was dominated by Erdoğan's close allies such as Yalçın Akdoğan; this led to speculation that he would take a docile approach as prime minister while Erdoğan continued to pursue his own political agenda as president. The AKP lost its parliamentary majority in the June 2015 general election, though it remained the largest party. Davutoğlu's government subsequently resigned but stayed in power until a new government could be formed. After undertaking a series of unsuccessful coalition negotiations with opposition parties, Davutoğlu was tasked with forming Turkey's first-ever interim election government, which presided over snap elections scheduled for November 2015. The AKP regained its parliamentary majority in November after a landslide victory, with Davutoğlu subsequently forming his third government.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Alan Kay

Alan Curtis Kay is an American computer scientist, known for his early pioneering work on object-oriented programming and windowing graphical user interface design, and for coining the phrase, The best way to predict the future is to invent it.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Alan Perlis

Alan Jay Perlis was an American computer scientist known for his pioneering work in programming languages and the first recipient of the Turing Award.

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Albert Claude

Albert Claude was a Belgian biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade. He studied engineering, and then medicine. During the winter of 1928-29 he worked in Berlin, first at the Institut für Krebsforschung, and then at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Dahlem.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Albert Hofmann

Albert Hofmann was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide. Hofmann also was the first to isolate, synthesize and name the principal psychedelic mushroom compounds, psilocybin and psilocin. He authored more than 100 scientific articles and a number of books, including LSD: My Problem Child.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt was a Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937. He is credited with discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He was also active in the Hungarian Resistance during World War II and entered Hungarian politics after the war.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Alexander Fleming

Sir Alexander Fleming, FRSE, FRS, FRCS was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy.

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Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

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Alexis Carrel

Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon and biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912 for pioneering vascular suturing techniques. He invented the first perfusion pump with Charles A. Lindbergh opening the way to organ transplantation. He is also known for making famous a miraculous healing at Lourdes by witnessing the event.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao

Alfred Day Hershey

Alfred Day Hershey was an American Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist and geneticist.

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Alfred Kinsey

Alfred Charles Kinsey was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology, who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, as well as producing the Kinsey Reports and the Kinsey scale.

Posted: 2019-03-03By: pandao