Nationality: Greek

Occupation: Mathematician

Biography: Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever.

Source/Notes: After coming up with a method to check the purity of gold. As quoted in: Synagoge (c. 340) by Pappus